April 27, 2017 / 00:28
COLORFUL SCENERIES OF THE WORLD
THE STATE OF KUWAIT
The State of Kuwait lives in these days, a group of precious feasts. These days coincide with the occasion of the 52nd Anniversary of the Independence and the 22nd Anniversary of the Liberation of the State of Kuwait and the 7th Anniversary of the passage of 7 years of the assumption of H.H Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Amir of the State of Kuwait.
25 February 2014 Tuesday 00:01
The relations between Turkey and Kuwait are historical and elite relations. The brotherhood, friendship and shared vision between two countries; are continuously improving these relations in various fields including politics, economy, trade, culture and tourism. The State of Kuwait and the Republic of Turkey established diplomatic relations for the first time in 1969 through the Embassy of Republic of Turkey in Beirut, and developed these relations further by opening embassies in the capital of each of the two countries reciprocally in 1971.
These relations between the two countries, has deepened by mutual visits, as well as economic and commercial activities, and mutual agreements and protocols on cooperation in many fields such as, tourism, health, environment, oil, and so on, the number of these agreements and protocols reached more than 31 until now.
The relations between Kuwait and Turkey have shown a normal development in the frame of mutual respect, and reached its peak with the honorable attitude of the Republic of Turkey, during Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990.
The Republic of Turkey have contributed immediately in saving the State of Kuwait from this occupation, along with coalition forces, and supported the process of controlling the flight ban among Northern Iraq region by opening its military bases for these forces.
The Republic of Turkey condemned Iraq strongly in the early hours of the invasion, described it as an attack on the legitimacy of international law and announced that it will be in solidarity and cooperation with the State of Kuwait to win its independence and sovereignty.
Turkey's proximity to Iraq played an important role in the development of relations between Turkey and Kuwait.
Because immediately after the occupation, Turkey stopped the flow of Iraqi oil passing through its territories and played an efficient role by declaring that it has joined the coalition forces which started the war for the liberation of Kuwait.
Despite the economic loss which Turkey suffered as a result of this attitude, it had never given up this position.
In response to this attitude of Turkey, Kuwait's late Amir Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah, paid a visit to Turkey in November of 1991, and expressed the indebtedness and appreciation of the State of Kuwait and its people to the Republic of Turkey for Turkey's stance against the invasion of Iraq and defending the right of Kuwait.
During this visit, the late Amir of the State of Kuwait stated that Turkey’s attitude opened a new page for constructive cooperation which serves the interests of both people of two countries, enunciating that this stance of Turkey strengthened the long-standing and strong relations between two countries.
The late Amir also called for continuing the repression of Turkey applied against Iraq regarding the Kuwaiti captives and prisoners held in Iraqi prisons to ensure their release and return to their families.
The visits in various fields between two countries continued after the visit of the late Emir of the State of Kuwait to Turkey which took place beyond the liberation of the State of Kuwait, and the relations between two countries become more and more strong.
The Economic relations between the State of Kuwait and the Republic of Turkey:
Kuwaiti investments in the areas of both public and private sector in Turkey is around U.S. $ 3 billion. The number of Kuwaiti companies that have investments in Turkey which is considered as an efficient investment land for foreign countries exceeded 78. The Kuwaiti investors whom are interested in many fields, especially in banking and ready-wear sectors attaches a great attention to Turkey. The main Kuwaiti investors in Turkey are; Kuwait Finance House – through Kuwait Türk Bank, Al-Alamia Investment Company, Aref Investment (Gulf Investment), Al-Alamia Investment Group, Al-Shaya Financing and Leasing Corporation, Al-Ghaneem Company, Global Finance Company, Kuwait national Banks (Turkish Banks), Sanko Textile Industry and Tourism company, Al-Tasdeer Foreign Trade Company, and Al-Sayer Group, Cevahiroğlu Group.
Investment Authority activities:
Kuwait Investment Authority's investments in Turkey as of March 31, 2010 are about 1564 million U.S. dollars.
Kuwait Investment Authority held the following investments in Turkey:
· Cevahir Mall (invested 750 Million U.S. Dollars.)
· TAV Airport Management (invested 47 Million U.S. Dollars.)
· Halk Bank (invested 245 Million U.S. Dollars)
· Stock market investments (invested 522 million U.S. dollars)
As of 2012, the total of investment volume (public and private sectors) of Kuwait in Turkey is approximately 30 billion dollars.
Balance of Trade Between Kuwait – Turkey (in U.S. Dollars)
Turkey's exports seriously affected by the economic crisis in 2008, and caused a decline in the amount of exportation from 493 million U.S. dollars to 211 U.S. dollars, leading to a reduction in Turkey’s exports to the State of Kuwait in 2009. This situation was not applicable only for the State of Kuwait and it was the same for some European countries, Arab countries and neighboring countries which have a strong commercial bond with the Republic of Turkey.
The agreements between the State of Kuwait and the Republic of Turkey are;
• Agreement of Avoidance of Double Taxation.
• Co-operation Agreement between the Chambers of Industry and Commerce of the Republic of Turkey and the Chambers of Industry and Commerce of the State of Kuwait.
• Memorandum of Understanding in the field of Exportation Development • Custom Co-operation Agreement.
• Co-operation Agreement on Air Services between the two countries
• Economic, Technical and Industry Agreement on Cooperation in the Fields
• Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement.
• Cooperation Agreement on Civil, Commercial and Criminal Law and Jurisdiction.
• Commercial Cooperation Agreement
• Framework Agreement on Economic Cooperation between the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and the Republic of Turkey
• Memorandum of Understanding on Technical Cooperation in the field Measurements
• Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation
• Science, Technology, Economic and Agricultural Cooperation Agreement
The State of Kuwait is located at the north western corner of the Arabian Gulf, bordering it from the north and north west is Iraq, to the south and south west is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Due to its location, it is considered a natural passage to the north east of the Arabian Peninsula, this gained it commercial importance long ago. It was named Kuwait a diminutive of Khout which is a fort like construction used to store weapons and used as a refuge for soldiers.
Kuwait has nine Islands; Failaka, Bubyan, Miskan, Warbah, Auhah, Um-Almaradim, Um-Alnamil, Kubbar and Garouh. Kuwait occupies 17,818 Sq kilo metres of land.
Islam is the official religion of the State of Kuwait, while total freedom is granted to those who practice other religions on the understanding that they do not infringe upon Islam.
Since Kuwait is located in a desert region, the climate is continental distinguished by long hot dry summers and warm short winters with occasional rainfall. Sandstorms often occur during the summer months.
Kuwait is divided into six governorates:
• Al Asimah (Kuwait city: capital and seat of government)
• Jahra: largest governorate.
• Mubarak Al-Kabeer
The population up until 30/June/2007 reached approximately 3,328,136. 1,038,598 of which are Kuwaiti nationals the rest are expatriates and foreigners.
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
Sheikh Sabah Khalid Al-Hamad Al-Sabah
Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs
of the State of Kuwait
Name Sabah Al-Khalid Al-Hamad Al-Sabah
Born March 3rd, 1953
Marital status Married to Sheikha Ayda Salim Al-Ali Al-Sabah
Children Sheikha Al-Jawhara & Sheikh Khalid
1977 B.A. Political Science – Kuwait University
Arabic – English
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Oct. 2011 – (incumbent) Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs
Apr. 2009 – May 2009 Appointed Minister of Information, Acting Minister of Justice and Acting Minister of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs
Oct. 2007 – Apr. 2009 Appointed Minister of Information
July 2006 – Oct. 2007 Appointed Minister of Social Affairs and Labor
1998 - 2006 Appointed Chief of the National Security Apparatus
1995 - 1998 Appointed Ambassador of the State of Kuwait to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1992 - 1995 Appointed as Director of the Undersecretary’s Office at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
1989 - 1992 Appointed as Deputy Director of the Arab World Department at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
1983 - 1989 Posted to the Permanent Mission of the State of Kuwait to the United Nations (New York)
1978 - 1983 Worked at the Arab Affairs Desk in the Political Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
1978 Appointed as a Diplomatic Attaché in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Conference Experience: Represented the State of Kuwait in various international conferences.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Chairperson of the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED)
- Member of the National Security Council – Kuwait
- Member of the Supreme Council of Petroleum - Kuwait
- Member of the Supreme Council for Planning and Development – Kuwait
- Member of the Supreme Council of the Environment Public Authority – Kuwait
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1962: A MILESTONE IN KUWAIT'S HISTORY OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
Kuwait takes pride in participatory model of governance. Throughout its history, Kuwait’s subsequent rulers or (Sheikhs) actively engaged citizens in public affairs. As such, consultation and public consent are key pillars of Kuwait’s political history. This explains why elections and the formation of a nd representative bodies in Kuwait date back to 1921, when the first legislative council of Kuwait was formed, and again in 1938, when the second legislative council was established. However, it was not until 1962, a year after Kuwait gained its independence from the United Kingdom, that the current parliament, known as the National Assembly was formed.
That year, the-then Amir of Kuwait Sheikh Abdulla al-Salim al-Sabah (1950-1965), institutionalized Kuwait’s long history of consultation and public participation through the formation of a founding assembly (al-majlis al-ta’sisi), which was tasked with codifying the Nation’s Constitution. The draft was presented to Sheikh Abdulla al-Salim on November 11, 1962, who signed and ratified it on the same day without any amendments. The first election for the newly formed National Assembly were held in 1963. The 1962 Constitution remains in effect to this day.
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY: COMPOSITION AND ROLE
Kuwaiti citizens elect fifty (50) Members of Parliament from five (5) electoral districts to the unicameral legislature. The top ten winners from each district are allocated a parliamentary seat. MPs serve for four year-terms, unless the Amir calls for early elections. There is no limit on the amount of terms an MP may serve. Suffrage is extended to all Kuwaitis at the age of 21, except those citizens who have been naturalized for less than 30 years and active members of the armed forces.
Members of the Cabinet are ex-officio members of the National Assembly. The 1962 Constitution limits the size of the cabinet to one-third that of the elected MPs and therefore the highest possible number of ministers is 16, including the Prime Minister. The 1962 Constitution requires that at least one member of cabinet be an elected MP. Although cabinet members are actively engaged in National Assembly affairs, the constitution prohibits them from partaking in certain procedures, most notable of which are a vote of non-cooperation with the Cabinet, or a vote of no-confidence against a particular minister.
While there is considerable overlap between the executive and legislative branches of government, Article 50 of the Constitution regulates the relationship between these branches of government. The article, titled “Separation and Constitutionality of Powers,” states “The system of government is based on the principle of separation of powers functioning in cooperation with each other in accordance to the provisions of the constitution. None of these powers [branches] may relinquish all or part of its competence specified in the constitution.”
This article establishes a strong sense of collaboration between the executive and legislative branches of government, and is a basis for regulating disputed matters. Consider the following examples to better illustrate cooperation between both branches of government:
• Determining Legislative Priorities: Prior to every parliamentary session, both the Cabinet and National Assembly work together to identify the legislative priorities for that term. At first, the Cabinet, under the leadership of HH the Prime Minister, provides the National Assembly with a list of its legislative priorities. This list is then reviewed by the Executive Office of the National Assembly (which includes the Speaker, Deputy Speaker, Rapportuer, and the chairs of the committee on legislative and legal affairs and the committee on economic and financial affairs) to amend or merge parts of the Cabinet’s priorities with that of the National Assembly. The result is the issuance of a plan for each parliamentary session, which is then approved by parliament in an open session as joint priorities. It is then that these issues are deliberated as bills and passed in the form of laws.
• Cabinet Cooperation with Parliamentary Oversight: All ministers are responsible before HH the Amir and the National Assembly. To help facilitate the role of parliamentary oversight, cabinet ministers are frequently invited to participate in parliamentary committee sessions. They are often asked to provide progress reports on development projects, or to discuss amendments to proposed bills, and other administrative affairs.
MPs also have numerous tools to question cabinet decisions beyond committee hearings. These tools range from posing a parliamentary question, forming a temporary investigation committee on a particular topic, and finally, interpellation.
The Cabinet, under the leadership of HH the Prime Minister, and with support from the Office of the Minister of State for National Assembly Affairs (MoNAA) continue to push for higher response rates from cabinet ministers to questions or suggestions posed by different MPs. Over a six month period, for example (from May 2010-October 2010), the cabinet has:
1. Increased its responses rate of parliamentary question from 60 to 89 percent, even though the number of parliamentary questions during were doubled during this period.
2. Formed a legislative priorities committee, which includes representatives from every government institution to follow-up on the status of proposed bills and the implementation of enacted legislation.
3. Launched a website that highlights the latest information on executive-legislative priority areas and joint achievements.
THE VEHICLES OF THE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS
The National Assembly is composed of several parliamentary committees, each serving a different area. These committees are crucial to the legislative and oversight processes as it is through these committees that bills are first discussed, investigations are conducted, and ordinary citizen concerns are raised. Committee chairs and rapportuers are frequently called upon to update parliament during its regular and open sessions on the status of their work, especially if the topic discussed falls under a committee’s focus area.
Currently, the National Assembly is comprised of 18 such committees, 10 of which are permanent and 8 are temporary. No committee may have more than 9 members at any given time. Committee members are elected at the start of each parliamentary session, for one year terms. MPs may run for as many parliamentary committees as they wish. There are no limits as to the number of times an MP may serve on any given committee.
The Permanent Committees are:
1. Committee for Defense and Interior
2. Committee for State Budget
3. Committee on Economic and Financial Affairs
4. Committee on Legislative and Legal Affairs
5. Committee for Education and Culture
6. Committee for Health, Social and Labor Affairs
7. Committee on Foreign Affairs
8. Committee for Public Facilities
9. Committee for the Protection of Public Funds
10. Committee for Public Petitions and Grievances
RULERS OF THE STATE OF KUWAIT
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, We, Abdullah al-Salim al-Sabah, Amir of the State of Kuwait, desiring to use the means of democratic rule for our dear Country; and, having faith in the role of this Country in furthering Arab nationalism and the promotion of world peace and human civilisation; and, striving towards a better future in which the Country enjoys greater prosperity and higher international standing, and in which also the citizens are provided with more political freedom, equality, and social justice, a future which upholds the traditions inherent in the Arab nation by enhancing the dignity of the individual, safeguarding public interest, and applying consultative rule yet maintaining the unity and stability of the Country; and, I having considered Law Number I of 1962 concerning the system of Goverument during the period of transition; and, upon the resolution of the Constituent Assembly; do hereby approve this Constitution and promulgate it.
Part I The State and System of Government
Article 1 [Sovereignty, Territorial Integrity]:
Kuwait is an Arab State, independent and fully sovereign. Neither its sovereignty nor any part of its territory may be relinquished. The people of Kuwait is a part of the Arab Nation.
Article 2 [State Religion]:
The religion of the State is Islam, and the Islamic Sharia shall be a main source of legislation.
Article 3 [Official Language]:
The official language of the State is Arabic.
Article 4 [Monarchy]:
Kuwait is a hereditary Amirate, the succession to which shall be in the descendants of the late Mubarak al-Sabah.
1. The Heir Apparent shall be designated within one year, at the latest, from the date of accession of the Amir.
2. His designation shall be effected by an Amiri Order upon the nomination of the Amir and the approval of the National Assembly which shall be signified by a majarity vote of its members in a special sitting.
3. In case no designation is achieved in accordance with the foregoing procedure, the Amir shall nominate at least three of the descendants of the late Mubarak al-Sabah of whom the National Assembly shall pledge allegiance to one as Heir Apparent.
4. The Heir Apparent shall have attained his majority, be of sound mind, and a legitimate son of Muslim parents.
5. A special law promulgated within one year from the date of coming into force of this Constitution shall lay down the other rules of succession in the Amirate. The said law shall be of a constitutional nature and therefore shall be capable of amendment only by the procedure prescribed for amendment of the Constitution.
Article 5 [State Symbols]:
The flag, emblem, badges, decorations, and the National Anthem of the State shall be specified by law.
Article 6 [Democracy]:
The System of Government in Kuwait shall be democratic, under which sovereignty resides in the people, the source of all powers. Sovereiguty shall be exercised in the manner specified in this Constitution.
Curriculum Vitae His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah
His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah was sworn in as Kuwait’s 7th Prime Minister on December 4th, 2011.
Prior to becoming Prime Minister, His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Sabah held the post of First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior and Minister of Defence in July 2006. A year later, in October 2007, he became First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence.
During his service in the Ministry of Defence, Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Sabah drove efforts towards raising the skills and expertise of the armed forces in all sectors (land, sea and air); he also championed the acceptance of women of various proficiencies in the engineering and military facilities, Moral Guidance and Public Relations Departments.
His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah began his professional career as supervisor of the Administrative Affairs in Al-Diwan Al-Amiri from 1968-1971. In 1971-1975, he became director of the same department; from 1975-1979 he became Assistant Undersecretary for Administrative and Financial Affairs in Al-Diwan Al-Amiri.
His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Sabah assumed the post of Governor of Hawalli Governorate from 1979-1985, and in 1985-1986 he held the position of Governor of Ahmadi Governorate.
In 1986-1988, Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Sabah was charged with the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour portfolio. In 1988-1990, he held the post of Minister of Information.
Following the liberation of Kuwait, His Highness was appointed Advisor to the office of the late Amir, His Highness Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah serving from 1992-2001.
On February 14, 2001, he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence.
In 2004, His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Sabah presided over the Supreme Council for the Environment. His Highness demonstrated a keen interest in preserving Kuwait and the region’s environment from any nuclear disaster should a leakage occur from Iran’s nuclear plants, scrap metal and military vehicles tainted by radiation during the second Gulf war.
As well as His Highness’s previous accomplishments, Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah was nominated in 2010 as Chairman of the Higher Council for the Disabled Affairs; whereby conditions and regulations to reduce working hours for the next of kin who are caring for a disabled member of the family were approved, established the principle of equal treatment for each disabled person as” individual cases” in the single family under the age of 18, and finally endorsed the allocation of an allowance for university students up to the age of 26.
His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah was born on January 4th, 1942, he is married with children.
• In 2007, His Majesty King Hamad bin Issa Al-Khakifa awarded His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah the” Medal of King Issa First Class” following his visit to Bahrain, where he participated in the Middle East Forum on Internal and World Security.
• In 2009, His Highness became the first Arab figure to be awarded Japan’s highest honour conferred on foreigners; The Imperial Decoration of “Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun” which was bestowed by Japan’s Emperor Akihito at a special ceremony held at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo. The distinction was awarded in recognition of His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Sabah’s efforts in promoting mutual understanding as well as political, diplomatic and environmental ties between the State of Kuwait and Japan.
• In 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy conferred “Legion of Honour Medal of the First Degree” upon His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Sabah in recognition of his efforts in strengthening ties between the State of Kuwait and the Republic of France.
forecastsNon-oil growth seen steady at 4% as project spending continues to lag; wage growth benefits consumer sector…
• GDP growth could reach a healthy-looking 5.4% in 2012, but growth in the non-oil sector, at 4%, will remain below the regional average. (Chart 19.) Two key factors are holding the economy back: the slow pace of execution of the government’s four-year development program (2010/11-2013/14), and lingering effects from the financial crisis, which have undermined business confidence. In addition, structural reforms are needed in labor and product markets to improve the economy’s underlying growth potential.
• Crude oil output jumped by 16% y/y to 2.9 mbpd in mid-2012 (chart 20), its highest level for years (other sources put output at 3 mbpd, closer to its maximum capacity of 3.3 mbpd). Despite the recent fall in oil prices, we assume that output remains close to current levels throughout the year and next as OPEC seeks to rebuild global crude inventories and support global growth. This translates into a strong 8% increase in real oil GDP this year but no growth in 2013. High output levels increase the importance of implementing the sector’s expansion plans, which have been held up by technical and political factors.
• The consumer sector remains the bright spot of the non-oil economy, supported by high employment levels and large government-inspired salary and benefit increases for nationals. New retail developments have provided an outlet for spending growth. Activity in other sectors remains more subdued, with firms hesitant to take on more debt and lacking a major trigger to invest. One notable exception has been the residential property sector, where land and building sales have surged.
• Targeted public development plan spending for 2012/13 has been set at KD 5.5 bn, up 5% y/y. Based on estimated spending rates in previous years (58-62% of targeted), this could boost total fixed investment by 0.3% of GDP, though some of this may leak abroad. The increase in planned spending comes largely in the electricity sector. Proposed public-private projects (PPPs) continue to be delayed by administrative and bureaucratic hurdles, though the first – the Al Zour power station – could start in 3Q12.
• Consumer price inflation is expected to average 3-4% this year and next, little changed from recent levels. (Charts 21 and 22.) Previously high food price inflation has decelerated as the lagged effect of falls in global food prices has taken hold. Although consumer spending will remain strong, soft monetary conditions and a strong US dollar are expected to help keep inflation low.
• Despite a projected dip in oil prices, budget and external surpluses will continue to be very large. (Charts 23 and 24.) Government spending could leap by as much as 17% in 2012/13 in light of recent increases in public sector pay and social spending. Oil revenues, however, could also increase on higher than expected production levels. The net effect is a slight decrease in the budget surplus to 23% of GDP. We assume that spending growth slows to 5% in 2013/14. Nevertheless, fiscal policy will continue to provide key support for the economy while private sector activity recovers.
Kuwait forecast summary
Real GDP % y/y 5.4 2.6
- Non-Oil % y/y 4.0 4.0
Inflation (yr avg) % 3.0 3.5
Budget balance % GDP 23.0 16.0
December 2012 - To appoint the Prime Minister
Having reviewed the Constitution and our Order issued on the 19th of Moharram 1434 A.H., corresponding to the 3rd of December 2012, accepting the resignation of the Prime Minister.
Article One: appointing His Highness Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah as the Prime Minister, he is charged with proposing members of the new cabinet and submitting their names to us, to issue a decree for their appointment.
Article Two: The Prime Minister must implement our decree, inform the National Assembly, and it is effective from the date it is issued, then it is published in the official gazette.
Amir of Kuwait
Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Issued in Seif Palace on the 21st of Moharram 1434 A.H. corresponding to 5th of December2012
State of Kuwait is the most reformist and modernist country between the Arab and Middle East countries which adopts modern democratic system responisve to the modern age. With its transparent governmental and private sectors, the State of Kuwait characterized as a State of constitution and institutions. The most remarkable institutions in the State of Kuwait are as follows:
-General Authority for Minors Affairs
-Kuwait Fund for Future Generations
-Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science
-General Organization for Social Insurance
-Union of Consumer Cooperative Societies
-The Zakat House
-The General Authority for Investment
19th June 1961 is considered as the actual date of Kuwait’s independence from Britain and entering a new phase of its history, through which it looks upon the horizons of the independent world and contributes in peace making and human civilization.
This day marked the signing by the Amir, the late Sheikh Abdulla Al Salem Al Sabah, the 11th ruler of Kuwait, named as the “father of independence” of the independence treaty with Sir George Middleton, the British commissioner for the Arabian Gulf, on behalf of his government, and canceling the agreement signed by Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, the 7th ruler of Kuwait, with Britain on 23 January 1899, to protect it against external ambitions.
Independence means the independence of the State and it independent structure, and undertaking its external mission without other guardianship. This has been attached int eh Independence Treaty.
The Independence Treaty stated the cancellation of 23 January 1899 treaty, as it contradicted with the sovereignty and independence of Kuwait. Article two stipulates continuation of relationship between both countries with the spirit of close friendship. The most prominent aspects of 1961 independence treaty is the third paragraph which stipulates that nothing in these results will affect the readiness of the government of her majesty in assisting the government of Kuwait, if the government of Kuwait requested such assistance.
Upon declaring the independence, the late Amir, His Highness Sheikh Abdulla Al Salem, may God have mercy on him, whose rule extended from 1950 to 1965, delivered a speech on this occasion in which he said :
“On this enticing day of our beloved nation, on which we transfer from one phase to another phase of history and fold another page of the past with all its components and contents, to open a new page represented in this treaty which you read now, whereby Kuwait gained its full independence and sovereignty.
On this day, the heart is full of happiness with shining smiles on the faces, we raise our eyes with humbleness to the Almighty God to praise and thank Him for His blessing bestowed on us.
The close cooperation between the government, represented by the officials from the ruling family and the faithful people, is a beautiful meaning which diffused happiness and applause in myself, making me wish that such good cooperation will continue, with everlasting progress and prosperity. I would like to point here to the good spirit which prevailed over.
The negotiations and record for the friendly British side for their magnanimous spirit, proper understanding of matters and sincere wish to reach an understanding, which eased reaching the desired objective and confirmed its content from the beginning.
At the end, while we are approaching a new era, we hope that Kuwait would start its beginning by reinforcing ties of friendship and fraternity with its Arab sister countries, in order to work with solidarity and compassion for the goodness of the Arabs and realize the wishes of the Arab nation. Further, the new situation requir4es us to work towards membership in the Arab League, United Nations organization and other organizations working for the goodness, safety and security of the world, whenever possible. God help us.”
The new independence phase imposed upon the modern state structure to take legal, constitutional and diplomatic actions, the most prominent of which was replacing the country’s flag which was in red color with the word “Kuwait” in the middle, to the new flag. This step started with the enactment of law No.26 of 1961 for renewal of the flat form, specifications and the locations where it is to be hoisted.
On the level of constitutional procedures, the first step was crystallized on 26 August 1961 with the enactment of the Amiri Decree calling for conducting public elections for the constituent council to undertake, upon its composition, drafting the country’s constitution. Within nine months, the council finalized the draft constitution of the State of Kuwait, consisting of 183 articles, which was submitted to His Highness Sheikh Abdulla Al Salem Al Sabah, who ratified and passed the same on 11 November 1962.
On 23 January 1962, in implementation of the provisions of the constitution, the first parliamentary elections in the modern history of Kuwait were organized to elect fifty representatives to represent ten constituencies.
On 29 January 1963, the late Sheikh Abdulla Al Salem Al Sabah opened the first National Assembly in Kuwait’s history.
Kuwait’s independence marked a new phase for its entry as part of the international community countries, according to a special Kuwaiti policy, the elements of which are to strive towards peach and establish cooperation with the various world countries, as part of the relationship of brotherhood and friendship with the countries and nations.
On the diplomatic field, the first step was represented in establishing the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in order to carry out its entrusted role. On 19 August 1961, the Amiri Decree No.13 was enacted for establishing the foreign affairs department to be concerned alone with assuming the foreign affairs of the country. The second article of the decree stated the merging of the Government of Kuwait’s secretariat in the foreign affairs department, which was transferred on the first cabinet composition into the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Following the enactment of the decree establishing the department, an Amiri decree was passed for the appointment of the first head of foreign affairs on the date of Kuwait’s independence, on 3 October 1961, whereby Sheikh Sabah al Salem al Sabah was appointed as head of the foreign affairs, then minister of foreign affairs in the first cabinet on 17 January 1962, followed by His Highness the Amir of Kuwait, Sheikh Sabah al Ahmad Al Sabah who was appointed the minister of foreign affairs in the second cabinet, issued on 28 January 1963.
Following its independence, Kuwait submitted an application for membership in the Arab League, whereby the League board organized a meeting on 16 July 1961 and passed a decree for accepting it as a member besides its sister Arab countries.
On 30 November 1961, the international Security Council considered Kuwait’s request to join the UN membership. On 14 May 1962, Kuwait’s joining of the international organization was approved, to become the 111th member. Further, Kuwait participated in the international organizations of the UN, such as the World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), UNESCO, World Bank and the International Labor Organization. It worked hard through its international activity to support Arab issues in general, including the Palestinian issue.
In 1963, a decree was enacted for merging the National Day with the assumption of the rule Day on 25th February, the anniversary of Sheikh Abdulla Al Salem Al Sabah’s assumption of the rule in Kuwait in 1950.
Sheikh Abdulla Al Salem Sabah, named as the father of independence, passed away on Wednesday, 24th November 1965.
THE 22nd ANNIVERSARY OF THE LIBERATION OF THE STATE OF KUWAIT
• Invasion of Kuwait
The crisis started on the 2nd of August 1990 when big units of Saddam’s army crossed the Kuwaiti borders and occupied Kuwait for seven months. The international Security Council has condemned in consensus since the beginning of the aggression the invasion of Kuwait by Saddam’s forces.Resolution No.660, passed by the council called upon Saddam’s regime to withdraw without condition or restriction and start negotiations immediately between both countries. However, this resolution was rejected by Saddam’s regime.
The invasion crisis indicated the extent of the Kuwaiti people’s cohesion and resistance to the occupation and defending their country, whether those inside or outside Kuwait, as well as adhering to their government and legitimate leadership. There is no bargaining or negotiation on the sovereignty and independence of Kuwait and safety of its lands. This cohesion and unity raised the admiration of the entire world.
• Liberation of Kuwait
On 17 January 1991, the second Gulf War broke out between the forces of Saddam’s regime and the international alliance forces consisting of 34 international forces led by the United States of America, through the use of Saudi lands, leading to the victory of the allied forces and liberation of the State of Kuwait on 26 February 1991. Prior to its withdrawal from Kuwait, the former regime burned down Kuwaiti oil wells, causing one of the biggest environmental crises in the world.
• Post liberation and reconstruction phase
Following liberation, the former Iraqi regime approved the international Security Council resolutions related to Kuwait’s invasion and its consequences. When the Kuwaiti administration returned to its country after its liberation, it has laid down and implementing a comprehensive plan for the reconstruction of Kuwait, the majority of which was destroyed and its infrastructure was almost paralyzed.
On these days twenty years ago, the liberation war of Kuwait ended. The State of Kuwait restored its freedom, thanks to the solidarity of its people primarily and their cohesion against the occupation, as well as refusing to dealt with its authorities and representatives directly and indirectly. A basic role for reaching the independence day was the world’s movement to support the State of Kuwait after discovering that its people refused the occupation absolutely and that the ruling family, represented at that time by His Highness the Amir, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Al Jaber Al Sabah and His Highness the Crown Prince, Sheikh Saad Al Abdulla Al Salem Al Sabah, may God have mercy on them, as well as His Highness the Amir, Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Jaber Al Sabah, who was the minister of foreign affairs at that time, and their readiness to sacrifice the dear and cheap for the sake of Kuwait and its people in order to regain freedom, sovereignty, independence and welfare for the country’s citizens.
THE 7th ANNIVERSARY OF THE ASCENDANCE OF H.H.THE AMIR TO THE LEADERSHIP OF THE STATE OF KUWAIT
The past years witnessed prominent activities by His Highness the Amir of Kuwait, especially on the level of fostering external relations. In March 2006, His Highness carried a Gulf tour which included Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Bahrain, State of Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, during which he conducted talks with leaders of these countries which addressed the outstanding brotherly relations and means of promoting and developing them, in addition to several cases of concern to GCC states. During this tour, His Highness was honored with the highest medals of honors.
His Highness addresses attention constantly to participate in all the consultancy, periodical and emergency Gulf summit on the level of the Higher Council of GCC States leaders, under the umbrella of the joint Gulf work.
By the end of March 2006, His Highness the Amir chaired the State of Kuwait’s delegation to the Arab 18th Summit Conference, held in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, where he confirmed that the State of Kuwait observes the significance of completing the process of developing joint Arab efforts and the steps initiated to activate the Arab League and develop its institutional building.
His Highness called for the necessity of having a serious international stand to lay down legislations and decisions through which the separating line between the freedom of expression and opinion and between provocation by attacking religions and beliefs, on the background of the drawings published by a number of Western newspapers against our Prophet Peace Be Upon Him.
Furthermore, His Highness the Amir of Kuwait has carried in June 2006 an Asian round which included Bangladesh, Thailand, India and Pakistan, which led to Kuwait’s signing of several bilateral agreements covering all fields, especially the economic fields that fostered the relationship between the State of Kuwait and these countries.
His Highness the Amir of Kuwait arrived in Paris in November 2006 in an official visit to the French Republic. The French president has honored His Highness with the highest medal of honor, in appreciation of the prominent role of His Highness in expanding cooperation and fostering the relationships between both countries on all scales. On the margin of the visit of His Highness to Paris, he visited the permanent headquarters of the United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO). His Highness attended the ceremony of the distribution of the prize of His Highness the late Sheikh Jaber Al Ahamd Al Sabah for researches and training in the education field in favor of the handicapped.
The activities of His Highness the Amir of Kuwait, Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad, in 2007 included several aspects. On the occasion of the passing of one year since His Highness assumed the rule in the country, he summarized his vision of Kuwait’s progress in the presence and the future. He affirmed in a speech he delivered on 29th of January that transforming the country into a financial hub has become a necessary solution and called for eliminating disagreements as national unity observed His Highness is not a slogan uttered and written, but a very clear principle, faithfulness and positive contribution.
His Highness the Amir of Kuwait chaired in November the State of Kuwait’s delegation to the third summit conference of the OPEC, held in Riyadh. His Highness confirmed in his word delivered during the summit on the necessity of cooperation of the producers and consumers in order to attain stability for the oil markets and encourage economic growth in the world. His Highness declared the State of Kuwait’s donation of 150 million dollars to support the program for funding scientific research related to the energy, environment and climatic change.
In March 2008, His Highness chaired the State of Kuwait’s delegation to the 20th summit conference of the Arab League, held in Damascus, at which he stressed in his word he delivered at the conference on the idea of holding an Arab summit to be allocated for economic, social and development affairs, adopted by the State of Kuwait, in participation with Saudi Arabia and Egypt, in Riyadh summit.
Furthermore, by the end of April, His Highness inaugurated the activities of the 4th Islamic Economic International Forum, hosted by the State of Kuwait under the title “Islamic Countries…..partners in international development.”
In his word delivered at the conference, His Highness addressed the challenges faced by the world, especially a number of friendly Islamic countries such as the crisis of the scarcity of food resources, escalation of their prices and their effects and that in order to confront this, Kuwait is submitting an initiative to set up a fund for honorable life in the Islamic countries, by donating one hundred million dollars for launching this fund, and invites countries, development regional and international funds and organizations to support this initiative.
In November, His Highness participated in a high level meeting of the UN general assembly to discuss the topic of dialogue between civilizations. His Highness confirmed in his word delivered at the meeting on the significance of serious and sincere dialogue between the peoples and various religious to face the difficult conditions in our world today.
His Highness ended his activity in 2008 by his patronage of the 6th conference of heads of Kuwaiti diplomatic missions under the slogan “safe and prosperous nation”, during which His Highness opened Kuwait Diplomatic Institute.
In January 2009, His Highness opened Kuwait’s Arab Economic, Development and Social Solidarity Summit with the Palestinian People in Gaza”, in the presence of the leaders, kings and presidents of Arab states, during which he announced Kuwait’s donation of 500 million dollars as a contribution in the initiative launched by His Highness to provide the required financial resources to cover the needs of the Palestinian Refuges Rescue and Employment Agency, due to its belief in the humanitarian role of the agency and in order to meet the urgent needs of the Palestinian brothers.
His Highness the Amir of Kuwait, Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Jaber Al Sabah, has resumed and is leading Kuwait’s movement of goodness, and addresses care according to the promise of His Highness to his people, and renewed his output to Kuwait, in light of the blessing of God and guided by the Holy Koran and the words of the Almighty God:
“ Work and God, His Prophet and the believers will see your work. ”
The words of the Almighty God are true.
Rulers of Kuwait
Ever since Sheikh Sabah the First assumed leadership of Kuwait in 1756, his descendants have ruled over the country unchallenged. Some governed Kuwait for many years whilst others spent just a short time as ruler.
Historical versions disagree about the exact date of the arrival of the Utub or Bani Attaba in Kuwait. The Utub tribe comprised several groups from the tribe of Anaza, such as AI-Sabah, AI-Khalifa, AI-Zayed, AI-Jalahma and AI-Muawda who migrated from AI-Aflaj in Najd and eventually settled down in Kuwait after a long migration. The Tribe lived under
the protection of Sheikh of Bani Khalid. The ruling family's struggle for succession, which started after the death of Sa'dun bin Ghurair AI Hamid in (1722), seems to have given other tributary tribes some form of local independence. The rivalry among the factions of the ruling family was ended by the unanimous choice, in 1752 of Sabah bin Jaber, by the inhabitants of Kuwait, to administer justice and solve the disputes among the inhabitants, and to run the affairs of the town.
AI Sabah Rulers of Kuwait
1- Sheikh Sabah 1 Bin Jaber: 1756 - 1762.
2- Sheikh Abdallah I: 1762 -1812.
3- Sheikh Jaber I: 1812-1859.
4- Sheikh Sabah II: 1859- 1866.
5- Sheikh Abdallah II: 1866 -1892.
6- Sheikh Mohammad I: 1892 - 1896.
7- Sheikh Mubarak AI-Sabah: 1896 - 1915.
8- Sheikh Jaber II:1915-1917.
9- Sheikh Salem AI-Mubarak: 1917-1921.
10- Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah: 1921 -1950
11- Sheikh Abdallah AI-Salem AI-Sabah: 1950 -1965.
12- Sheikh Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah: 1965-1977.
13- Sheikh Jaber AI-Ahmed AI-Jaber AI-Sabah, 1977-2006.
14- The Father-Figure Shiekh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah (15 January 2006 - 29 January 2006).
15- Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, the Amir of the State of Kuwait.
Islam is the official religion of the State of Kuwait. Since arabic is the language of the Holy Quran, "the Islamic Constitution", arabic is the official language of the State of Kuwait, as stated in Kuwait Constitution. This can be attributed to the fact that founders of the Kuwaiti Constitution realized the significance of the arabic language as a factor of the unity and coherence among Arab countries. Furthermore, arabic is a means for the emergence and spread of the Arab civilization.
Across Kuwait history, arabic language was influenced by other languages and societies in Kuwait. Kuwaitis, now, speak a nice of arabic dialect in their colloquial daily discourse. It is a popular language that has its own characteristics and qualities of a language. It comes close to the Classical arabic. The Arab Kuwaiti dialect combines the present time with the history via bonds of strong Arab and substantial linguistic ties.
Arabic Language and Culture
All the cultural activities and social interactions in Kuwait are based upon the arabic language. arabic is distinguished by its flexibility and richness. Its forms contain precise expressions and an extraordinary capability for differentiating between tangible and the intangible. arabic language certainly reflects the identity of the Kuwaiti society, as well as, Kuwait cultural, national existence.
Arabic Language As The Most Pillar Important Of Unity
One of the most important pillars of unity is language. Using one language in communication strengthens the ties among members of the same society. This unity is reflected in the thought, creed and the conscience of the nation.
The Kuwaiti Constitution aims at fostering strong ties that bond arabic language with the society. Kuwaiti community is filled with activities that use arabic language as a means of communication in all the cultural activities, industrial and social interactions.
THE MAIN OFFICIAL RELIGION OF KUWAIT
Islam is the main official religion of Kuwait. Freedom of religion is guaranteed to the adherents of other religions, provided that no prejudice may occur against Islam.
Islam and the Kuwaiti Constitution
The Kuwaiti Constitution states that Islam is the main, official religion of Kuwait. Islam and the Islamic Sharia (Islamic law) are the main sources of the Kuwaiti Laws and Legislations. Most of the Kuwaiti population embraces Islam. Majority of the Kuwaiti Muslims are Sunnis and the rest are Shia'a. Adherents of other religions are given the complete freedom to practice their own rituals provided that provided that no prejudice may occur against Islam. Christian families practice their own religious rituals with complete freedom in the churches found in Kuwait. This freedom is endorsed by the Kuwaiti government, a matter which enhances the coherence and interdependence of the nation.
Islam sets the required spiritual, social, economic and political standards for establishing a stable and balanced society. Viewing individuals as the corner stones of societies, Islam encourages individuals to conduct studies and disseminate scientific information all the time. The first verse in Holy Quran revealed to the Prophet Muhammad was in this regard. Allah says what means, "Read! In the Name of your Lord Who has created (all that exists). He has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous) (Al-Alaq 96:1-3). Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) called for learning and always reminded Muslims with its significance and that seeking knowledge is an obligation on each Muslim.
Islam, also, aims at enhancing Takaful among the individuals of the society. Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept. This is to achieve social justice and coexistence with other religions. Hence, Islamic Shariaa includes a wide range of rules that work on organizing dealings and practices among people. The base for all practices must be upon disseminating justice provisions, equality before law, freedom and Shurra (consultation). The Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs in Kuwait is keen on enhancing the spirit of Islam and disseminating its teachings. This is besides fostering the influence of the religion in the Kuwaiti society and protecting the Islamic heritage throughout the years.
In June 30, 2008, the population of Kuwait was estimated at 3.328.136 persons according to the Central Statistical office. In this census, the number of Kuwaitis reached 1.038.598, while the rest were non-Kuwaitis and foreigners.
The City of Kuwait and its suburbs contain most of the Kuwaiti population, especially on the shore of the Arabian Gulf. The main source of data for the growth of Kuwait population across the history is from the estimates recorded by travelers who used to pass through the country. In 1957, the first official census carried out. Its results stated that the Kuwaiti population reached 206.473 persons. The number of non-Kuwaitis was 92.851.
In 1961, the Kuwaiti population was estimated at 321.621 persons, comprising 62% males and 37% females. The arrival of large numbers of immigrants at that time resulted in this gender percentage gap. Every five years since 1965, Kuwait has regularly conducted censuses.
In 1985, the population reached 1.697.301 persons, comprised 56% males and 44% females. In 1990, the population reached 2.141.465 persons. The percentage of non-Kuwaitis scored 72%. In same year, the Iraqi aggression against Kuwait occurred. As a result, large number of the non-Kuwaitis emigrated. Hence, major changes in the population structure took place.
In 1995, the Kuwaiti population reached 1.577.598 persons. The percentage of non-Kuwaitis was 58%.
On April 2005, the ninth census was carried out for people, housing and facilities. This census is the first for the State of Kuwait in the Twenty-First Century. The preliminary estimates showed that the Kuwaiti population reached 2.213.403 persons. The number of Kuwaitis was 880.774 and that for non-Kuwaitis was 1.332.629.
The State of Kuwait has never lived any political crisis with the Republic of Turkey, whereas Turkey was one of the first countries which recognized the State of Kuwait and established diplomatic and economic relations with the State of Kuwait since the first years of independence.
Throughout the history of Kuwaiti and Turkish relations, no conflicts have occurred between two countries.
Undersecretariat for Treasury and Undersecretariat for Foreign Trade indicates that, the Turkish and Kuwaiti sides signed many conventions after 1991 in the fields of private investment protection and double taxation exemption, which contributed to the increased investment and cooperation, and trade and economic cooperation between two countries, which can be materialized through the following numbers according to Turkey's exports to Kuwait and Kuwait's exports to Turkey in U.S. dollar:
Regarding the following table, which published by the Undersecretariat for Treasury and Undersecretariat Foreign Trade about the volume of trade between Turkey and the State of Kuwait:
According to statistics issued in both countries, investments of 30 Kuwaiti companies reach to significant numbers that can be mentioned as millions of US Dollars
The followings are the names of Kuwaiti companies which invest in Turkey:
1. Finance House (Kuwaiti-Turkish Bank)
2. AL- ALAMIYA Company for Investment (DOKER Corporation)
3. AREF for Investment ( Gulf for Investment)
4. AL- ALAMIYA Group for Investment ( Gulf for Investment)
5. AL- SHAYA Company for Investment and Rent Corporation
6. Al-GANIM Company
7. International Finance Corporation
8. National Bank of Kuwait
9. SANKO for Textiles and Tourism Limited Company
10. Export for Foreign Trade Limited Company
11. CEVAHİROĞLU Mall
12. Muhammad Nassir Al- SAYIR Company (Factory for Steel and Manufacture and Cement Mixers)
A remarkable increase observed in the volume of Kuwaiti investments in Turkey, because of the increase in the Kuwaiti – Turkish Bank branches in Turkey. In the year of 2000, there were 22 branches. In the year of 2007, it became 83 branches. With the branches that have been opened in many of European countries such as Holland and Germany, the volume of banking transactions during the first six months of 2007 reached to 2.94 billion TL which equals to 2 billion U.S. dollar.
The investment of the Cevahiroğlu Mall bought by Martiniz Kuwaiti Company which is considered as the second biggest Kuwaiti investment in Turkey. Kuwait bought half of the property of this complex which equals to $ 750 million in mid-2006.
There is a decline of import from the Republic of Turkey to State of Kuwait from 156 milyon in 2008 to 66 milyon in 2009.
The reason of this sharp decline is the financial crisis and it influenced Turkish exports directly. The decline was not only for Turkish export to Kuwait, but also to many countries which have an interdependence of commerce with the Republic of Turkey, such as European Countries, Arab Countries and the neighbour countries of the Republic of Turkey.
The Turkish newspaper Today’s Zaman published an article on 21 February 2010 with the title of ‘Global financial crisis negatively affects Turkey’s exports to neighbors’. That indicates the sharp decline of Turkish export to its neighbors, except two countries in which the Turkish exports incresed: Iraq and Syria.
According to the records of the General Authority For Investment Activities of the State of Kuwait, the rate of Kuwaiti investment in the Republic of Turkey applied by this Authority is about 1,564 million dollars until 31/3/2010.
Item US $ Million
Al Jawahar (Cevhair) Shopping Center 750
TAV (Airport Operator) 47
Listed Equities 522
The followings are the names of the most important Kuwaiti companies which are investing in Turkey:
• Finance House (Turkish Kuwaiti Bank)
• AL- ALAMIYA Company For Investment (DOKER Corporation)
• AREF For Investment ( Gulf For Investment)
• AL- ALAMIYA Group for Investment ( Gulf For Investment)
• AL- SHAYA Company for Investment and Rent Corporation
• Al-GANIM Company
• International Finance Corporation
• National Bank of Kuwait
• SANKO for Textiles and Tourism Limited company
• Export for Foreign Trade Limited company
• CEVAHIROĞLU Mall
• Muhammad Nassir Al- SAYIR Company (Factory for Steel and Manufacture Cement Mixers)
The projects of Kuwaiti Found for Arab Economic Development in Turkey until 17/01/2007
(Kuwaiti Million Dinar)
(Note: The value of the Kuwaiti dinar (1 dinar= 3.44 US dollar)
Credit Loans and Grants Provided by the Kuwait Fund for Arap Economic Development:
Project Name The Date of Signature The Value ( D.K.)
1- Electricity transmission line across the Bosporus 1/5/1979 2,588,39
2- The main water pipe to Istanbul water. 21/1/1980 2,762,118
3- Provide drinking water to Izmir. 21/4/1983 5,774,969
4- Repair two parts of road which are transit to Turkey. 21/4/1983 4,018,839
5- Repair Arafa – Akıncı Section of 16/5/1984 5,000,000
the road which are transit to Turkey.
6- Turkish railways 24/4/1986 5,744,364
7- Rehabilitation and expansion of 15/6/1987 5,726,755
distributing network of drinking water to Ankara
8- Water supply for Greater Istanbul – Yeşilçay system. 21/6/1993 23,518,021
9- Provide water for Greater Istanbul – Yeşilçay system 22/12/1999 18,893,685
10- Program of reconstruction and development 19/2/2001 16,000,000
of areas affected by earthquakes
11- Reconstruction and development of 26/9/2002 7,700,000
areas affected by earthquakes -Sewerage
12- Additional loan for reconstruction 9/11/2005 8,500,000
of the areas affected by earthquakes – Roads
Kuwaiti Dinar is the official currency of Kuwait. Each Dinar comprises of 1000 fils. Kuwait currency consists of six categories in denominations: Quarter (?) of Dinar, Half (?) of Dinar, One (1) Dinar, Five (5) Dinars, Ten (10) Dinars and Twenty (20) Dinars).
History of Kuwait Currency
The first attempt to issue a national currency was during the reign of the fifth Amir of Kuwait, Sheikh Abdullah bin Sabah bin Jaber Al-Sabah. In order to reflect the independance of the State of Kuwait, Sheikh Abdullah ordered the coining of a national currency. The first coins were made using simple tools like hammers, hence, their shape was irregular and each coin was different than the other. The value of this currency equaled one paisa. After the circulation of only a few hundred pieces of this currency in the markets for few months, it was withdrawn for the following reasons:
• During that period, Kuwait used the Rupee of Queen and Empress Victoria. Among its divisions was the paisa.
• The Indian paisa had the greater share in the market, as result of India’s powerful gold reserve.
• Kuwait had no gold reserve to foster its national currency.
The current Kuwaiti Dinar underwent several changes and developments throughout the Kuwaiti history. After concluding an accord between the Kuwaiti government and the Indian government, the first Kuwaiti Dinar was issued. Hence, all Indian banknotes and coins were withdrawn from the Kuwaiti markets as of April 1961 to be sent back to India. During the following two months, the Kuwaiti Banks and the Post Offices replaced the Indian Rupee with the Kuwaiti Dinar. Since one Dinar equaled 13.33 Indian Rupees, a total of 342 million Indian Rupees were replaced by 25.646.110 Kuwaiti Dinars during these two months.
The first Kuwaiti banknotes carried the photo of the late Amir of Kuwait; Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah, the signature of the Chief of the Council of Finance at that time; Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, and pictures of renaissance landmarks in the State of Kuwait. The phrase "The Kuwaiti Emirate" was engraved on the coins. After one year of dealing with this coin, the phrase was replaced by the word "Kuwait" after independence.
On June 1, 1968, the Law No. 32 was issued to organize banking, the Kuwaiti currency and the Central Bank of Kuwait. Nine years later, the Central Bank released new banknotes for circulation on the following phases:
• The first phase dated November 17, 1970. The new banknotes were of values ten (10) dinars, half (?) of dinar and quarter (?) of dinar. On April 20, 1971, five (5) dinar and one (1) dinar banknotes were released. They carried the photo of the late Amir of Kuwait; Sheikh Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah.
• The second phase dated November 20, 1980. In the reign of Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah, the Central Bank of Kuwait issued new banknotes.
• The third phase dated January 27, 1986. The Central Bank of Kuwait issued a new twenty (20) Dinar banknote. It was circulated starting from February 9, 1986.
• The fourth phase dated March 24, 1991. This currency release was characterized by its new and different colours. After the aggressive Iraqi invasion, Kuwaiti banknotes, assets and the gold reserve were robbed from the Central Bank of Kuwait. Hence, this new release came in different shape and colours to prevent the Iraqi invaders from benefiting from the stolen Kuwaiti banknotes. Banks and banking services stopped during the period from August 2, 1990 until the expulsion of the enemy.
• The fifth phase dated April 3, 1994. This release of national banknotes is the currently circulated currency in Kuwait. It is distinguished by the high technology and security techniques used in the domain of manufacturing and printing the banknotes.
After independence, and to mark the achievements reached in Kuwait in all aspects of life, the Central Bank of Kuwait released gold and silver coins and commemorative banknotes on the national occasions for the Kuwaitis and currency collectors.
Kuwait consitutes a puzzling but intriguing mix of Western liberalism and strict Islam. The capital, Kuwait City, is a bustling metropolis full of the high-rise buildings and luxury hotels. Yet the country is also host to elaborate and opulent mosques and palaces, and its religion is an integral part of its affairs.
This juxtaposition perhaps stems from Kuwait's marrying of Islamism with oil-wealth, mostly traded with Western superpowers. Upon independence from Britain in 1961, Sheikh Abdullah assumed head of state, adopting the title of Emir. The large revenues from oil production allowed independent Kuwait to build up its economic infrastructure and institute educational and social welfare programmes.
In the early 1990s, the emir established a National Assembly (Majlis), which placed limits on the power of the ruling family. Since then, the national assembly has clashed several times with the emir and the cabinet (which is still dominated by the al-Sabah family) over misuse of state funds and poor management of the all-important oil industry.
Underlying these disputes is the growing impression that the ageing and increasingly infirm al-Sabah clan is no longer capable of running the country. However, they continue to dominate Kuwaiti policies.
Surrounded by three major Middle Eastern powers, the main threat to the country came from the renewal of Iraqi territorial claims over Kuwait (along with the overdue repayment of some US$40-60 billion on the part of Iraq), which led to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The Kuwaitis later recovered their country by virtue of a US-led, UN-backed multinational military force.
After a period of euphoria, the Kuwaitis had to address a number of difficult questions; the future security of the country was dealt with by the signing of defence and security pacts with the USA, the UK and Kuwait's Gulf allies. More recently, Kuwait was one of the first countries to join Operation Iraqi Freedom following the US-led war against Iraq, and provided aid and support during Iraq's (ongoing) process of reconstruction.
KUWAIT CITY TRAVEL GUIDE
At the cusp of the Gulf crescent, the tiny city state of Kuwait (Al Kuwayt) is wedged between powerful neighbours in a region defined by Islam and new wealth.
Settled for centuries by seafarers and traders, Kuwait City provided 'bread and salt' for the Bedouin from the Arabian interior. More recently, the capital offers all the diversions of a burgeoning metropolis with excellent museums, modern shopping malls and sophisticated marinas.
Beyond Kuwait City, the desert unwraps across a barren plain of oil installations but it has two great attractions: a limitless sandy coastline and a surprising dusting of vegetation after spring rains, both of which come as a pleasant surprise to visitors.
Flights to Kuwait
Getting there by air:
The national airline is Kuwait Airways (KU) (website: www.kuwait-airways.com...
Travel by road, rail and water
Getting there by road:
All road links with Iraq, and therefore through to the Syrian Arab Republic and Jordan, are advised against due to political instability within...
Get there by water:
Main portsKuwait City . More than 30 shipping lines call regularly at Kuwait City. Most traffic is commercial.
Getting around by road:
Car hire: Self-drive is available. If you produce an International Driving Permit, the hire company will, within five days, grant...
Kuwait International Airport
Here you'll find essential information on Kuwait International Airport, including contact details, airport transfer facts, details of airport...
There is a high threat from terrorism. Terrorists continue to issue statements threatening to carry out attacks in the Gulf region. These include references to attacks on Western interests, including residential compounds, military, oil, transport and aviation interests.
In early 2005,...
Passport and visa
Passport valid for at least six months required by all nationals referred to in the chart above.
Required by all nationals referred to in the chart above.
Note 1: Nationals of the EU (except nationals of Bulgaria,...
Medical insurance is essential. Both private and government health services are available.
Kuwait Dinar (KWD) = 1,000 fils. Notes are in denominations of KWD20, 10, 5 and 1, and 500 and 250 fils. Coins are in denominations of 100, 50, 20, 10, 5 and 1 fils.
Jun 28 - Al-Esra Wa Al-Meraj (Ascension of the Prophet)
Aug 31 - Eid al-Fitr (End of Ramadan)
The following goods may be imported into Kuwait without incurring customs duty:
• 500 cigarettes or 2lb of tobacco.
Touristic Enterprises Company of Kuwait
PO Box 23310, Safat 13094, Kuwait City, Kuwait
Tel: 565 3771 or 2775.
Embassy of the State of Kuwait in the UK
2 Albert Gate, London SW1X 7JU, UK
Tel: (020) 7590 3400 or 3415 (consular section).
Opening hours: Mon-Fri 0900-1230...
Kuwait Travel Guide is an apt reminder of how Kuwait has picked up the pieces and marched forward after the horrors of the Gulf War. It has now become one of the most visited tourist destinations in world. Kuwait Tourism gains much of its popularity by dint of the several Kuwait Popular Destinations.
Green Island in Kuwait is one of the top Kuwait Popular Destinations for the tourists who want to relax. There are a 35 meters high tower, water tank at the top of the tower, Kids castle and 50000 colored shrubs, seedlings and many more other attractions. Failaka Island in Kuwait is another serene and calm island that is regarded as one of the Kuwait Popular Destinations. This island attracts many tourists from all over the world with its sylvan surrounds. Messila Beach in Kuwait is another popular attraction to the tourists. While you are traveling to the Kuwait Popular Destinations, do take a trip to the historical towers like Liberation Tower in Kuwait and Kuwait Towers in Kuwait. Liberation Tower symbolizes the Kuwaiti liberation from the Iraqi attack. Kuwait Tower is the main landmark of the city.
For the history buffs, Kuwait Popular Destinations have in store a plethora of historical edifices. These old buildings are now used by the museums to arrange exhibitions and trade fairs. Some important buildings are Bayt Al-Bader in Kuwait and Sadu House in Kuwait. Some museums like Tareq Rajab Museum in Kuwait, Saif Marzooq Al-Shamlan Museum in Kuwait, and Kuwait National Museum are the famous Tourist Attractions in Kuwait.
Kuwait Popular Destinations give you a plenty of options to make your visit a memorable one. Take a visit to these places during your visit to Kuwait:
Al Ahmadi in Kuwait
Doha Village in Kuwait
Bayt Lothan in Kuwait
Dhows in Kuwait
Oil Display Centre in Kuwait
On your visit to Kuwait, do not miss a chance to travel to the religious Popular Destinations in Kuwait. Some popular mosques and cathedrals are Grand
Mosque in Kuwait, Our Lady of Arabia Church in Kuwait and Holy Family
Cathedral in Kuwait. Some other Popular Tourist Destinations of Kuwait are its amusement parks and the entertainment cities. They are
City in Kuwait, Al-Sha'ab Leisure Park in Kuwait and Zoological Garden of
The Kuwait Popular Destinations are your passport to the history of an ancient land and an exciting encounter with the heady transformation of this land.
Kuwait Grand Mosque
The Grand Mosque is the largest mosque in the country of Kuwait. Its area spans 45,000 square meters, out of which the building itself covers 20,000 square meters. The main prayer hall is 72 meters wide on all sides, has 21 teakwood doors, and has lighting provided by 144 windows. The dome of the mosque is 26 meters in diameter, and 43 meters high, and is decorated with the “Asma al-hosna”, the 99 names of God. The mosque can accommodate up to 10,000 men in the main prayer hall, and up to 950 women in the separate hall for women. The mosque also contains a 350 square meter library of Islamic reference books and documents. To accommodate the large number of vehicles belonging to worshippers, the mosque also contains a 5-level car park underneath the eastern courtyard which can hold up to 550 cars. Construction on the mosque started in 1979, and the mosque was completed in 1986.
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